Matter is composed of molecules composed of atoms with negatively charged electrons and positively charged protons. Under normal conditions, the number of protons of an atom is the same as the number of electrons, positive and negative, so it shows an uncharged phenomenon. However, the electrons surround the nucleus, and they are out of orbit after an external force, leaving the original atom and invading other atoms B. The A atom has a positive electric phenomenon due to the lack of electron number, which is called cation, and B atom is increased by the number of electrons. Negative with electricity, called anion.
The reason for the imbalance of electron distribution is that the electrons are out of orbit by external force. This external force contains various energies (such as kinetic energy, potential energy, thermal energy, chemical energy, etc.). In daily life, any two objects of different materials are in contact. After separation, static electricity is generated.
When two different objects are in contact with each other, one object loses some charge, such as electrons transferred to another object to be positively charged, while the other body receives some electrons from the remaining electrons and is negatively charged. If the charge is difficult to neutralize during the separation process, the charge will accumulate and cause the object to be electrostatically charged. Therefore, when the object comes into contact with other objects, it will be electrostatically charged. Usually, when a plastic film is peeled off from an object, it is a typical "contact separation" electrification. The static electricity generated by undressing in daily life is also "contact separation".
Solids, liquids, and even gases are electrostatically charged by contact separation. This is because the gas is also composed of molecules and atoms. When the air flows, the molecules and atoms also "contact and separate" and electrify.
The static electricity on a person is mainly caused by the friction between the clothes or the clothing and the body. Therefore, the "charged" is different when wearing clothes of different materials. For example, clothes made of chemical fiber are more likely to generate static electricity, and cotton. Quality clothing is produced less. And because the dry environment is more conducive to the transfer and accumulation of charge, people will feel the static electricity on the body in winter.
In the dry and windy autumn, in daily life, we often encounter this phenomenon: when we undress and sleep at night, the sound of squeaking is often heard in the dark, accompanied by blue light. When the handshake is met, the finger just touches. The other party will suddenly feel the tingling of the fingertips, which is very shocking. When you comb your hair in the morning, the hair will often “float”. The more you mess, the more you will pull the door handle and the faucet will “electric shock”, often issued The sound of "papa", this is the static electricity that occurs in the human body. The above-mentioned several phenomena are the result of external "discharge" of static electricity in the body.
When the human body is moving, the skin is rubbed against the clothes and between the clothes and the clothes, and static electricity is generated. With the increase of household appliances and the wearing of chemical fiber clothes in winter, the static electric charge generated by household appliances will be absorbed and accumulated by the human body. In addition, indoor walls and floors are mostly insulators, and the air is dry, so they are more susceptible to static electricity.
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